Tuesday, February 28, 2012

Birtherism: The History

The future president, Barack Obama, and his grandparents.  Birthers can't stand two things about Obama: 1) That a black man is president and 2) that Obama is a product of a biracial reunion.  To Birthers, Obama represents a world in which whites lose their monopoly of political, economic and cultural power and a future in which the racial categories that divide Americans and leave the rich in power become impossibly fuzzy.  (The photo is taken form the Obamapedia website at http://www.obamapedia.org/photo/2608844/Obama+and+grandparents.  Birthers who see a sinister conspiracy in everything insist that the picture above is photoshopped.  For more on this particular dumbness, see http://www.newser.com/story/115902/obama-grandparents-photo-jack-cashill-asserts-its-a-fake-but-photoshop-mistake-suggests-otherwise.html)

If the sheet fits, wear it.

So-called Birthers insist on carding the black leader of the Western World like he’s a teenager trying to buy alcohol.  They are racists, period.  It takes little analysis is see what motivates this irrational, fact-denying paranoia.  According to polls, 41 percent of Republicans believe that President Obama is ineligible for the office because he was secretly born in Africa. (See http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0810/40644.html.)  Birthers are white and largely Southern (the South leads other regions of the country in Birtherism by a 3-1 or larger margin. See http://www.dailykos.com/story/2009/07/31/760087/-Birthers-are-mostly-Republican-and-Southern.) In short, it's mostly a rebellion of whites in the former Confederacy.  That doesn't, however, mean the idea doesn't find  adherents elsewhere

 It’s barely worth pointing out, but Birthers believe as they do because they don’t think a black person should be president of what they see as a “white” country.  Birthers “want their country back” from people of color.  White Birthers see Obama's election as a sign that they have irredeemably lost the country and that they are now on the powerless margins,.

As M.J. Rosenberg writes in Talking Points Memo:

. . . [T]he obsession with invalidating Obama's Presidency is very different from the equally intense lunacy during the Clinton years.
It is because the birthers want the first African-American's name erased from the list of Presidents. Even an impeached President or an assassinated President or a 30 day President remains on the books.
Harrison who served 30 days is #9. Garfield, shot after 120 days, is #20. The resigned Nixon is #37.
So the only way to make the fact that we elected a black President go away is to prove he was ineligible in the first place. In their fevered hopes, he is then removed from office, a white guy takes over, and Barack Obama is either not listed as President at all or is listed with an asterisk.
That is what the birther movement is all about. These people simply cannot live with the fact that America elected an African-American and they know that not even the very worst thing that could happen to him will not change that fact.
So...they come up with the one sure way to maintain their fantasy. They will never quit because if America actually elected a black President, God only knows what is next."  (See http://tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com/2010/05/06/what_the_birthers_are_trying_to_do/

Sadly, Birtherism began with some supporters of a supposedly progressive Democrat.  Towards the end of a bitter Democratic Party primary campaign as their heavily favored candidate continued to flail, people connected to Hillary Clinton's campaign, circulated a scurrilous e-mail, as reported by Ben Smith and Byron Tau:

“ . . . In the spring of 2008, as Clinton supporters circulated an anonymous email questioning Obama’s citizenship.
‘Barack Obama’s mother was living in Kenya with his Arab-African father late in her pregnancy. She was not allowed to travel by plane then, so Barack Obama was born there and his mother then took him to Hawaii to register his birth,’ asserted one chain email that surfaced on the urban legend site Snopes.com in April 2008.” (For more, see:http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0411/53563.html#ixzz1ndgZ2i9Z
As Politico continues:
“Another early version of the theory, reported by the Chicago Tribune in June 2008, depended on a specious legal theory that was, for a time, the heart of the argument: that Obama was born in Hawaii but had a Kenyan father, and his mother was only 18 years old. Therefore, under existing immigration law, he was not eligible for automatic citizenship upon birth — a claim that depended on an understandable, but incorrect, reading of immigration law. Other theories suggested that Obama lost his U.S. citizenship when he moved to Indonesia or visited Pakistan in violation of a supposed State Department ban as a young man. (There was no such ban.)”

The Birther theory gained ground through the strenuous efforts of Phil Berg, once the Pennsylvania Deputy Attorney General, who is a prolific conspiracy theorist and advocate of ‘Trutherism” – the idea that the Bush administration secretly plotted the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.   Berg filed a lawsuit claiming that Obama was not a natural-born citizen and thus was ineligible for the presidency in August 2008.  Berg would later falsely claim that a very young Obama renounced his American citizenship while he lived with his family in Indonesia. (See http://tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com/2011/04/after-birthers_how_conspiracy_theorists_reacted_to_obamas_birth_certificate.php).

As Smith and Tau document, Obama released his legal Hawaii-issued birth certificate in June 2008.  By then, Obama clearly had sewn up the Democratic nomination and Birtherism became a domain of the political right.  The birth certificate should have been authoritative proof of Obama’s citizenship.  Not in the bizarre world of Birthers.  As happened in previous cynical smears against Democratic candidates – Jerry Falwell’s claims that Bill Clinton murdered Vince Foster or ran a Mafia-like drug operation during his time as Arkansas governor or that John Kerry somehow faked his way into two Purple Hearts -- a large number of Republicans ignored inconvenient facts and just made stuff up.  They would insist that the legal birth certificate was a fake.  Jerome Corsi, the right-wing hack most responsible (along with Texas Republican oil man T. Boone Pickens) for attacks on Kerry’s war record in 2004, pushed a “the birth certificate is fake” storyline on his website.  (In a later post, I will discuss Corsi’s rabid anti-Semitism.)   As FactCheck notes, Corsi and other Republican Birthers made the following groundless allegations about the document:

·      The birth certificate doesn’t have a raised seal.

·      It isn’t signed.
·      No creases from folding are evident in the scanned version.
·      In the zoomed-in view, there’s a strange halo around the letters.
·      The certificate number is blacked out.
·      The date bleeding through from the back seems to say "2007," but the document wasn’t released until 2008.
·      The document is a ‘certification of birth,’ not a ‘certificate of birth.’

The non-partisan website Factcheck.org examined and photographed the long form document in August 2008. “FactCheck.org staffers have now seen, touched, examined and photographed the original birth certificate,” the site reported.  “We conclude that it meets all of the requirements from the State Department for proving U.S. citizenship. Claims that the document lacks a raised seal or a signature are false.” (See http://www.factcheck.org/2008/08/born-in-the-usa/)

As the site reported, “FactCheck representatives got a chance to spend some time with the birth certificate, and we can attest to the fact that it is real and three-dimensional and resides at the Obama headquarters in Chicago. We can assure readers that the certificate does bear a raised seal, and that it’s stamped on the back by Hawaii state registrar Alvin T. Onaka (who uses a signature stamp rather than signing individual birth certificates).”

FactCheck continues:
“The certificate has all the elements the State Department requires for proving citizenship to obtain a U.S. passport: ‘your full name, the full name of your parent(s), date and place of birth, sex, date the birth record was filed, and the seal or other certification of the official custodian of such records.’ The names, date and place of birth, and filing date are all evident on the scanned version, and you can see the seal above.
“The document is a ‘certification of birth, also known as a short-form birth certificate. The long form is drawn up by the hospital and includes additional information such as birth weight and parents’ hometowns. The short form is printed by the state and draws from a database with fewer details. The Hawaii Department of Health’s birth record request form does not give the option to request a photocopy of your long-form birth certificate, but their short form has enough information to be acceptable to the State Department. We tried to ask the Hawaii DOH why they only offer the short form, among other questions, but they have not given a response.
The scan released by the campaign shows halos around the black text, making it look (to some) as though the text might have been pasted on top of an image of security paper. But the document itself has no such halos, nor do the close-up photos we took of it. We conclude that the halo seen in the image produced by the campaign is a digital artifact from the scanning process.”

Regarding the “blacked-out” certificate number and the date stamp, FactCheck.org reports:

"The certificate is stamped June 2007, because that’s when Hawaii officials produced it for the campaign, which requested that document and ‘all the records we could get our hands on,’ according to spokesperson Shauna Daly. The campaign didn’t release its copy until 2008, after speculation began to appear on the Internet questioning Obama’s citizenship. The campaign then rushed to release the document, and the rush is responsible for the blacked-out certificate number. Says Shauna: ‘[We] couldn’t get someone on the phone in Hawaii to tell us whether the number represented some secret information, and we erred on the side of blacking it out. Since then we’ve found out it’s pretty irrelevant for the outside world.’ The document we looked at did have a certificate number; it is 151 1961 – 010641.”

In addition to the legal long and short form birth certificates, Birthers had at their disposal a birth announcement in the Honolulu Advertiser on August 13, 1961.  The paper included this notice: “Mr. and Mrs. Barack H. Obama, 6055 Kalanianaole Hwy, son, August 4.”

As FactCheck puts it with a nice touch of sarcasm, “Of course, it’s distantly possible that Obama’s grandparents may have planted the announcement just in case their grandson needed to prove his U.S. citizenship in order to run for president someday. We suggest that those who choose to go down that path should first equip themselves with a high-quality tinfoil hat. The evidence is clear: Barack Obama was born in the U.S.A."

Hawaii officials repeatedly attested to the authenticity of Obam’s birth records.  “I, Dr. Chiyome Fukino, director of the Hawai’i State Department of Health, have seen the original vital records maintained on file by the Hawai’i State Department of Health verifying Barrack (sic) Hussein Obama was born in Hawai’i and is a natural-born American citizen,” one official declared in 2008 and 2009 statements.” ( More is at http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0411/53563_Page3.html#ixzz1ndquREBl.)
In addition, lifelong family relatives and friends shared with reporters their memories of Obama being born in Hawaii and the family’s life at that time. This mountain of objective evidence would still not be enough.  Birthers would exploit a mistranslation that occurred during an interview with an African relative of Obama as one of the thin threads of “evidence” they used to defend their discredited beliefs.   As Politifact reported:

“This is actually an old claim that has been bouncing around the Internet for years. But keeping up with the latest birther claims is often like playing Whac-A-Mole, and we never got around to this one. So here we go.

The claim is based on an Oct. 16, 2008, telephone call between Bishop Ron McRae of the Anabaptist Churches of North America and Sarah Obama of Kenya, Barack Obama's elderly step-grandmother. The interview is complicated by the addition of at least one translator, because Sarah Obama, then 86, spoke Swahili.

The edited portion that often makes the rounds on the Internet includes this part of the interview:

McRae: ‘Could I ask her about his actual birthplace? I would like to see his birthplace when I come to visit Kenya in December. Was she present when he was born in Kenya?’
’She says yes she was. She was present when Obama was born,’ said the translator.

Smoking gun? Only if you stop the tape there and don't listen to the rest of the interview.

McRae immediately followed up by saying, ‘Okay, when I come in December, I would like to go by the place, the hospital where he was born. Could you tell me where he was born? Was he born in Mombasa?’

The translator can be heard translating, and then, he said, ‘No. Obama was not born in Mombasa. He was born in America.’

Said McRae: ‘Whereabouts was he born? I thought he was born in Kenya.’

The response came back, ‘He was born in America, not in Mombasa.’

‘Do you know where he was born?’ McRae continued. ‘I thought he was born in Kenya. I was gonna go by and see where he was born.’

‘Hawaii. She says he was born in Hawaii,’ the translator said. ‘In the state of Hawaii, where his father, his father was also learning there. The state of Hawaii.’

‘I thought she said she was present,’ McRae said. ‘Was she able to see him being born in Hawaii?’
‘No, no,’ the translator said. ‘...She was not ... she was here in Kenya. Obama was born in America ... Because the grandmother was back in Kenya and Obama was born in America, where he is from, where his father was learning, learning in America, the United States.’”  (For more, see http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2011/apr/07/donald-trump/donald-trump-says-president-obamas-grandmother-cau/)

By the fall of 2008 and through Obama’s first term, the Birthers persisted, stoked by utterly dishonorable right-wing politicians and media figures who probably knew better. The leader of the Birther movement, the so-called “Queen of the Birthers” became Orly Taitz, a dentist and lawyer who apparently has too much time on her hands.  Taitz tapped into a grab bag of anti-black stereotypes in her crusade: the idea that black men have unrestrained sexuality, are violent and hang out with other criminals, and that they are unpatriotic and radical liars. "I believe [Obama] is the most dangerous thing one can imagine, in that he represents radical communism and radical Islam: He was born and raised in radical Islam, all of his associations are with radical Islam, and he was groomed in the environment of the dirty Chicago mafia. Can there be anything scarier than that?" she once said.  (See http://www.esquire.com/the-side/richardson-report/obama-birth-certificate-update-081109)  She didn’t explain how Obama can at the same time embrace radical communism, which is atheistic, and radical Islam, which is strictly monotheistic. 

The "Birther Queen" Orly Taitz believes the president is a foreign born gay murderer. (Photo from the Mediaite website at http://www.mediaite.com/tv/cnns-john-king-manages-to-out-crazy-birther-queen-orly-taitz-in-wild-interview/)

Taitz made a bewildering array of wild accusations against the president, including that he has a vast collection of Social Security numbers and that a witness who knew about the president’s fake IDs was murdered; that he’s a closeted homosexual and that other gays from Obama’s church were murdered to cover up his sexuality; that Obama plans to open concentration camps for opponents like Taitz (these paranoids always places themselves in the middle of the universe); and that Osama Bin Ladin wa killed much earlier than the White House claimed and that the body was hidden and the death not announced until it was needed to distract the public from one of Taitz’ frivolous lawsuits against the president.  (These later two charges can be found at Tait's website athttp://www.orlytaitzesq.com/?p=21226   I guess the president is a real idiot since revealing the body would have been most useful for him right before the 2010 election when he lost control of the U.S. House.  For more on the crazy beliefs of Taitz, see a Salon.com profile of her at http://www.salon.com/2009/08/13/orly_taitz/)

Taitz has filed upwards of 20 lawsuits aiming to prove that Obama is actually African.  She has wracked up a won-loss record worse than last year's St. Louis Rams.  A Georgia judge fined her for misconduct based on her unprofessional behavior and her frivolous, fact-free litigation. (See http://blogs.ajc.com/jay-bookman-blog/2009/10/13/judge-lands-hard-on-orly-taitz-esq-itll-cost-her-20000/?cxntfid=blogs_jay_bookman_blog

Meanwhile, Birther signs became a staple of Tea Party rallies in 2009.  These often badly misspelled signs often not only questioned the president’s citizenship but also his intelligence and thus play to racist stereotypes of black stupidity. 

(These photos come from http://likeawhisper.wordpress.com/anti-obama-protest-signs/  This site has the largest collection of photos of offensive Tea Party signs.)

It wasn’t just the Republican rank-and-file who bought into Birtherism. Right-wing leaders egged the movement on.  Joseph Farah, whose wingnut website WorldNetDaily (which features writers like Prophet of Doom preacher Hal Lindsey) ran more than 600 Birther stories since 2008 and Farah paid for highway billboards across the country that asked, "Where's The Birth Certificate?" (http://www.rightwingwatch.org/content/joseph-farah-wishes-president-obama-happy-birthday)

In spite of the objective proof to the contrary, Rush Limbaugh supported the Birthers in June 2009.  As reported by The Daily Kos, the rightwing talk show host said, “A friend of mine said, 'Where was Obama born?' And I don't know. He's not a native Hawaiian. Where was he born? I don't know. Supposedly Hawaii, but we don't have independent confirmation of it.” (See http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/04/09/965107/-Rush-Limbaugh:-Portrait-of-a-Birther)

Sarah Palin insisted in March 2010 that questions about Obama’s birth were fair and said that, "I think the public rightfully is still making it an issue. I don't have a problem with that. I don't know if I would have to bother to make it an issue, because I think that members of the electorate still want answers."  Palin would later support talking hairpiece Donald Trump’s demands for the release of the long form birth certificate.

In her dread fear that a camera might be focused on somebody else, failed Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin cynically winked at Birtherism, while hypocritically complaining about the equally bizarre birther theories concerning her son Trig.  (Trig Birthers believe that Sarah Palin is not the mother of her youngest son.  They say that the real mother is her daughter Bristol or some unknown third party.  The fraud, Trig Birthers argue, was motivated by either Sarah Palin's desire to protect her daughter's reputation after one out-of-marriage wedlock, or to earn sympathy from voters because of the child's Down Syndrome.  The photo above is from the DelawareOnline site at http://www.delawareonline.com/blogs/2008/10/libe-blog-bidenpalin-debate.html.  For more on loony Trig Birtherism, see http://www.salon.com/2011/04/22/sarah_palin_trig_conspiracy_theory/.   For more on Sarah Palin's hypocritical attacks on Trig Birithers, see http://www.mediaite.com/online/sarah-palin-blasts-andrew-sullivan-as-a-trigtruther-conspiracy-kook-writer/)

GOP House Rep and failed presidential aspirant Michele Bachmann would repeatedly flirt with Birtherism too. (http://nymag.com/daily/intel/2011/02/michele_bachmann_toes_the_birt.html).  Huckster Donald Trump would base his whole phony presidential campaign in 2011 on the issue.  (See http://articles.latimes.com/2011/may/02/nation/la-na-gop-birthers-trump-20110502and http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2011/04/what-donald-trumps-birther-investigators-will-find-in-hawaii/237198/)   In March 2011 Trump even claimed he had sent investigators to Hawaii to investigate Obama’s birth who found “amazing things.”  (Seehttp://popwatch.ew.com/2011/05/21/donald-trump-celebrity-apprentice-fact-checking-claims/)

In despair because someone else was getting attention, Palin had to jump into the issue once again in early 2011, announcing she “appreciated” Trump’s devotion to the non-issue. (http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/sarah-palin-appreciates-donald-trumps-birther-questions/story?id=13342475  Solely, it seems, on his Birtherism, Trump briefly shot to the top in polls of GOP voters.  (http://thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/news/155699-gop-presidential-hopefuls-wrestle-with-how-to-handle-trump)

Donald Trump fed his need for attention by stoking the Birther fires.  (Photo from http://infostarcelebrity.blogspot.com/2011/03/donald-trump-bad-hair-day-pictures.html)
Meanwhile, Arizona debated a "show us your papers" bill for presidential candidates, a proposed law that would require White House contenders to provide birth certificates and other documents before they could get their names on the ballot. (See http://jonathanturley.org/2011/04/15/arizona-bill-would-require-proof-of-u-s-birth-for-presidential-candidates/)  The Arizona bill passed both houses in 2011 but was crazy enough that right-wing governor Jan Brewer, calling it "a bridge too far," vetoed the measure. Other states, such as Connecticut, Georgia, Missouri, Oklahoma and Texas wasted the public's time with this nonsense. (See http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/22/us/politics/22birthers.html and http://www.newser.com/story/111987/birther-bills-introduced-in-10-states.html

 The Obama political team miscalculated, fearing that if they engaged in a debate with the Birthers they would give credibility and greater visibility to what they hoped was a fringe movement.  They forgot that when a lie gets repeated enough it takes on the veneer of the truth. By March 2011, more Republicans believed that the President had been born in Africa than those who believed he had been born in the United States.

As the number of Americans doubting Obama's American citizenship remained stubbornly high, the White House - already struggling politically because of the recession -- decided to ask the state of Hawaii to make a special case and release the long-awaited "long form" birth certificate.  Released in March, the long form said what the earlier short form did and exactly what rational people had always believed: that he was born in Hawaii.  We also learned his birthweight and other trivia.  The form also did not identify Obama's father as a practicing Muslin as some Birthers claimed it would. (See http://jonathanturley.org/2011/04/27/birth-of-a-nation-obama-releases-long-form-birth-certificate/

The Obama birth certificate.  (Photo from FactCheck.org at http://www.factcheck.org/2008/08/born-in-the-usa/)

Trump who had hinted that his private investigators had uncovered some sinister secret about Obama's origins, backed off that lie and now bragged that he alone had forced the president to release the form.  "Today, I am very proud of myself because I accomplished something no one else has been able to accomplish," the blowhard narcissist announced.  "Why he didn't do it earlier when everybody else was asking for it I don't know.  But I am really honored, frankly, to have played such a big role in hopefully, hopefully getting rid of this issue."  Trump indeed accomplished something.  He made the country seem completely idiotic and racist to the entire world.

Predictably, when  Obama finally got the the long form released, the Birthers instantly insisted this evidence was also fake.  Orly Taitz instantly declared it a fraud, insisting (with no legal foundation) that the form should have identified Obama's race as "Negro," not "African." Others claimed to have discovered errors in the certificate numbers.
(See http://tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com/2011/04/orly_taitz_obamas_long-form_birth_certificate_should_say_negro_not_african.php)

Phil Berg, one of the earliest Birthers, said, "I not that concerned with the birth certificate.  Unless there is evidence that he renounced his Indonesian citizenship, we believe he is an illegal president." (Obama never became an Indonesian citizen.  See http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-04-27/politics/29989380_1_birther-movement-citizenship-berg-claims)

Phil Berg: one of the original Birthers.  He says that Obama renounced his citizenship in Indonesia.  Obama lived in Indonesia with his family there when he was between the ages of six and 10 and there is no record of the future president making a childhood renunciation of his U.S. citizenship.
 (Photo from http://articles.businessinsider.com/2011-04-27/politics/29989380_1_birther-movement-citizenship-berg-claims)

GOP candidates who manipulatively encouraged the Birthers now backed away. Shown a copy of Obama's long form birth certificate during an ABC broadcast in April 2011 by George Stephanapoulos, Bachmann said, "Well, then, that should settle it . . . I take the president at his word and -- I think -- again I would have no problem and apparently the president wouldn't either.  Introduce that, we're done.  Move on." (See http://hotair.com/archives/2011/04/20/michele-bachmann-obamas-certification-of-live-birth-is-good-enough-for-me/)
After the long form release, even Newt Gingrich wanted nothing to do with Orly Taitz, the Birther Queen.  The corrupt former House speaker and soon-to-be unsuccessful presidential candidate tried to ignore her during a campaign appearance in Pasadena, California, in mid-February of this year.  Gingrich made his own crazy accusation, that Obama plans a “war on the Catholic Church” if he gets re-elected and then Taitz approached him and said that the Birther issue might give his campaign a boost.

She made her most crudely racist comments since she took up the Birther cause, comparing the black president to janitors and field hands.. "Somebody who wouldn't be good enough, who wouldn't be certified to pick tomatoes or clean bathrooms is sitting in the White House," Taitz insisted to Gingrich.  Gingrich told her that would be a good project for her to pursue but that he had enough issues to debate with Obama. (See file:///Users/michaelphillips/Desktop/Birthirism/Newt%20Gingrich%20Dismisses%20Birther%20Question%20From%20Orly%20Taitz.webarchive)

That doesn't stop Gingrich from engaging in soft Birtherism, from linking Obama with Africa in barely more subtle ways.  In September 2010, Gingrich made these comments:

"What if [Obama] is so outside our comprehension, that only if you understand Kenyan, anti-colonial behavior, can you begin to piece together [his actions]?" Gingrich asked. "That is the most accurate, predictive model for his behavior."

This dubious comment, drawn from a typically Neanderthal, black-hating book by right-wing ideologue Dinesh D’Souza, The Roots of Obama’s Rage, suggests that Obama was deeply influenced by the alleged attitudes of a Kenyan father he barely saw.  But accurate biography is not the point – Gingrich wants to link Obama with Kenya, its supposed anti-Americanism, and make the president sound like he’s an alien.  (In spite of his history Ph.D., Gingrich apparently doesn’t know that the Founding Fathers in America fought a revolution to end their colonial status, which would make them . . .  anti-colonial.  For more see http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/09/12/gingrich-obama-kenyan-worldview_n_713686.html) 

Gingrich's followers are more hard core Birthers, and more openly white supremacist.  In Florida in late January, Gingrich told his all-white audience.  "Let's send Obama back to Chicago."  The crowd had another destination in mind.  "Kenya! Kenya! Kenya!"  they shouted.  (See http://www.dailyiowan.com/2012/01/31/Opinions/26748.html)  

In the modern GOP, concepts backed with mountains of data like evolution and global warming invite derision.  White supremacist fantasies like Birtherism thrive in defiance of reality.  It's comforting to imagine that Birtherism will fade when Obama likely wins a second term and that it's marginal viewpoint.  That view is as much a delusion as Birtherism itself. Negrophobia occupies the soul of the modern Republican Party.  And it's elites like Gingrich, Palin and others who who keep feeding this beast.

Michael Phillips has authored the following:

White Metropolis: Race, Ethnicity and Religion in Dallas, Texas, 1841-2001 (Austin:  University of Texas Press, 2006)

(with Patrick L. Cox) The House Will Come to Order: How the Texas Speaker Became a Power in State and National Politics. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010)

“Why Is Big Tex Still a White Cowboy? Race, Gender, and the ‘Other Texans’” in Walter Buenger and Arnoldo de Le├│n, eds., Beyond Texas Through Time: Breaking Away From Past Interpretations (College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2011)

“The Current is Stronger’: Images of Racial Oppression and Resistance in North Texas Black Art During the 1920s and 1930s ”  in Bruce A. Glasrud and Cary D. Wintz, eds., The Harlem Renaissance in the West: The New Negroes’ Western Experience (New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2011)

“Dallas, 1989-2011,” in Richardson Dilworth, ed. Cities in American Political History (Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2011)

(With John Anthony Moretta, Keith J. Volonto, Austin Allen, Doug Cantrell and Norwood Andrews), Keith J. Volonto and Michael Phillips. eds., The American Challenge: A New History of the United States, Volume I.   (Wheaton, Il.: Abigail Press, 2012).

(With John Anthony Moretta and Keith J. Volanto), Keith J. Volonto and Michael Phillips, eds., The American Challenge: A New History of the United States, Volume II. (Wheaton, Il.: Abigail Press, 2012).

(With John Anthony Moretta and Carl J. Luna), Imperial Presidents: The Rise of Executive Power from Roosevelt to Obama  (Wheaton, Il.: Abigail Press, 2013). 

“Texan by Color: The Racialization of the Lone Star State,” in David Cullen and Kyle Wilkison, eds., The Radical Origins of the Texas Right (College Station: University of Texas Press, 2013).

He is currently collaborating, with longtime journalist Betsy Friauf, on a history of African American culture, politics and black intellectuals in the Lone Star State called God Carved in Night: Black Intellectuals in Texas and the World They Made.


Montana said...

Mitt Romney's Mexican father, hmmmmm.......Are the simple minded "BIRTHERS", going to ask Romney for his birth certificate? We all know this was never about a birth certificate, if it was then these same people would be asking Romney for his. It's about small minded people who hate African Americans and do not have the brains to review a President's policy so they make something up. So sad, so sad.

Montana said...

Lets be clear none of these dullards have won a case in the “U.S. Courts”, maybe in their simple minds (if they have any) but not in our “U.S. Courts”, so unless Birthers/ Teabaggers, whatever you want to be called, win a court case, we will continue to see as dullards, liars or racist or maybe all three. Deal with that baby!